蔬食益生2019-06-24 06:32:58

本视频由Michael Greger医生于 2018 年 5 月 30 日发布,来自NutritionFacts.org — 能救命的营养学。



Michael Greger 医生是畅销书《How Not to Die》作者,中文译本:繁体版书名为《食疗圣经》。简体版书名为《救命》,于今年5月底出版。



Oxidized Cholesterol as a Cause of Alzheimer’s Disease


Oxidized cholesterol can be 100 times more toxic than regular cholesterol, raising additional concerns about foods such as ghee, canned tuna, processed meat and parmesan cheese.



Too much cholesterol in the blood “has long been considered to act as a primary risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease and, possibly, Parkinson’s disease.”



I’ve shown these striking images of what the brain arteries of Alzheimer’s victims look like on autopsy, clogged with fat and cholesterol, compared to non-demented elderly controls.



But wait a second: “cholesterol cannot be directly exported across the blood-brain barrier.” So, it can’t directly get into the brain, or out of the brain.


What if the brain has too much cholesterol, and needs to get rid of some?



As a safety valve, there’s an enzyme in the brain that oxidizes the cholesterol. And, in that form, it can exit the brain, and eventually the body.


啊,但这是想不到的:“尽管这样意味着大脑可以消除多余的胆固醇”,这些氧化产物却可以双向流动。它可能“允许一些在血流中存在的有毒氧固醇 - 氧化胆固醇 - 进入并积聚在大脑中。”

Ah, but here’s the kicker. “Although this fact means that the brain can eliminate excess amounts of these oxidation products,” it could be a two-way street. It could “allow toxic amounts of oxysterols - oxidized cholesterol - present in the blood stream to go the other way, and accumulate in the brain.”



This is not just a theoretical concern.



This elegant study showed that by measuring oxidized cholesterol levels in the blood coming off the brain, measured in the jugular vein in the neck, compared to the levels going into the brain through the artery, you could measure the difference.



And, this shows if you have too much oxidized cholesterol in your bloodstream, it can end up in your brain.


这会造成问题,因为“氧固醇的积累可致细胞毒性,致突变,致动脉粥样化,可能致癌” - 换句话说,对细胞有毒,对DNA有毒,并导致心脏病和可能导致癌症。

This is a problem, because “the accumulation of oxysterols can be cytotoxic, mutagenic, atherogenic, and possibly carcinogenic” — in other words, toxic to cells, toxic to DNA, and contributing to heart disease and maybe cancer.



Yes, samples from atherosclerotic plaques on autopsy contain 20 times more cholesterol than normal arteries, but they contain 45 times higher levels of oxidized cholesterol.


胆固醇氧化产物可能比未氧化的胆固醇病态及毒性强至 100 倍以上,不仅导致心脏病,而且可能导致多种不同的重大慢性病,包括阿尔茨海默。

Cholesterol oxidation products may be up to 100 times more pathological, more toxic than un-oxidized cholesterol — contributing to not only heart disease, but potentially a variety of different major chronic diseases, including Alzheimer’s.



Okay, so how can we cut down on the amount of these oxysterols in our body?



One way is by not eating them.



Oxidized cholesterol is found in “milk powders, meat and meat products (including fish), cheese, and eggs and egg products.”



Until recently, our understanding had been limited by the lack of testing methods to accurately analyze the amount found in various foods…until, now.



Oxidized cholesterol found throughout animal products.



Canned tuna was surprisingly high, but ghee takes the cake.


Ghee, clarified butter, boiled butter, is commonly used in Indian cooking.



The method of preparation appears to multiply oxidized cholesterol levels tenfold.



This dietary exposure from oxidized cholesterol may help explain why the subcontinent of India is ravaged by such heart disease, even though a significant proportion of the population stays away from meat and eggs. (A number of Indian dairy-based desserts are also made in a similar way.)



Oxidized cholesterol in the diet is a source of oxidized cholesterol in the human bloodstream, where it can then readily cross the blood-brain barrier into the brain. And this could trigger inflammation inside the brain — the buildup of amyloid — all occurring “years before the impairment of memory is diagnosed.”



These early studies, showing the buildup of oxidized cholesterol in the blood of those fed meals rich in oxidized cholesterol, where you get this spike in your bloodstream a few hours after you eat, were done with things like powdered egg, which can be found in a lot of processed foods. But, you typically don’t sit down to a meal of it.



You get the same thing, though, from eating normal food sources. Give folks some salami and parmesan cheese, which are naturally rich in cholesterol oxidation products, and later that day, it’s circulating throughout their bodies.



And, higher levels are not only associated with mild cognitive impairment, but Alzheimer’s disease as well.



“Increased concentrations in the brain may promote cellular damage, cause nerve cell dysfunction and degeneration, and could contribute to neuroinflammation” (brain inflammation) and the formation of these amyloid plaques.



You can show the boost in inflammatory gene expression right in a petri dish.



You can grow human nerve cells in vitro and drip a little cholesterol on, and you get a bump in inflammation. But, add the same amount of oxidized cholesterol, and it gets much worse.



And, if you look at the changes in brain oxysterols at different stages of Alzheimer’s disease on autopsy, you can see how the three main cholesterol oxidation products appear to be building up.



Levels have been shown to dramatically increase in Alzheimer’s-disease brains, adding to the evidence that “oxidized cholesterol may be a driving force behind the development of Alzheimer’s disease.”

(翻译及字幕制作:老玉米 Karen Chou)


  1. Zarrouk A, Vejux A, Mackrill J, et al. Involvement of oxysterols in age-related diseases and ageing processes. Ageing Res Rev. 2014;18:148-162.

  2. Heverin M, Meaney S, Lütjohann D, Diczfalusy U, Wahren J, Björkhem I. Crossing the barrier: net flux of 27-hydroxycholesterol into the human brain. J Lipid Res. 2005;46(5):1047-1052.

  3. Lordan S, Mackrill JJ, O'Brien NM. Oxysterols and mechanisms of apoptotic signaling: implications in the pathology of degenerative diseases. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20(5):321-336.

  4. Iuliano L, Micheletta F, Natoli S, et al. Measurement of oxysterols and alpha-tocopherol in plasma and tissue samples as indices of oxidant stress status. Anal Biochem. 2003;312(2):217-23.

  5. Otaegui-Arrazola A, Menéndez-Carreño M, Ansorena D, Astiasarán I. Oxysterols: A world to explore. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(12):3289-3303.

  6. Poli G, Biasi F, Leonarduzzi G. Oxysterols in the pathogenesis of major chronic diseases. Redox Biol. 2013;1:125-130.

  7. Linseisen J, Wolfram G. Absorption of cholesterol oxidation products from ordinary foodstuff in humans. Ann Nutr Metab. 1998;42(4):221-230.

  8. Emanuel HA, Hassel CA, Addis PB, Bergmann SD, Zavoral JH. Plasma Cholesterol Oxidation Products (Oxysterols) in Human Subjects Fed a Meal Rich in Oxysterol. J Food Sci. 1991:56(3);843-847.

  9. Staprans I, Pan XM, Rapp JH, Feingold KR. Oxidized cholesterol in the diet is a source of oxidized lipoproteins in human serum. J Lipid Res. 2003;44(4):705-715.

  10. Savage GP, Dutta PC, Rodriguez-Estrada MT. Cholesterol oxides: their occurrence and methods to prevent their generation in foods. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11(1):72-78.

  11. Jacobson MS. Cholesterol oxides in Indian ghee: possible cause of unexplained high risk of atherosclerosis in Indian immigrant populations. Lancet. 1987;2(8560):656-658.

  12. Raheja BS. Ghee, cholesterol, and heart disease. Lancet. 1987;2(8568):1144-1145.

  13. Liu Q, An Y, Yu H, et al. Relationship between oxysterols and mild cognitive impairment in the elderly: a case-control study. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15(1):177.

  14. Alexandrov P, Cui JG, Zhao Y, Lukiw WJ. 24S-hydroxycholesterol induces inflammatory gene expression in primary human neural cells. Neuroreport. 2005;16(9):909-913.

  15. Lathe R, Sapronova A, Kotelevtsev Y. Atherosclerosis and Alzheimer--diseases with a common cause? Inflammation, oxysterols, vasculature. BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:36.

  16. Testa G, Staurenghi E, Zerbinati C, et al. Changes in brain oxysterols at different stages of Alzheimer's disease: Their involvement in neuroinflammation. Redox Biol. 2016;10:24-33.

  17. Marwarha G, Ghribi O. Does the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol underlie Alzheimer's disease-Parkinson's disease overlap?. Exp Gerontol. 2015;68:13-18.

  18. Gamba P, Testa G, Gargiulo S, Staurenghi E, Poli G, Leonarduzzi G. Oxidized cholesterol as the driving force behind the development of Alzheimer's disease. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015;7:119.

  19. Dias IH, Polidori MC, Griffiths HR. Hypercholesterolaemia-induced oxidative stress at the blood-brain barrier. Biochem Soc Trans. 2014;42(4):1001-1005.

  20. Wellington CL, Frikke-Schmidt R. Relation between plasma and brain lipids. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2016;27(3):225-232.

  21. Wang HL, Wang YY, Liu XG, et al. Cholesterol, 24-Hydroxycholesterol, and 27-Hydroxycholesterol as Surrogate Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;51(1):45-55.







去年夏天我回国时见到父亲,故意问他:“爸,你知不知道我是从哪来的?” 他马上回答说:“你是从天上掉下来的。” 回答时手还指向天。从逻辑上讲回答是没问题的。平时还可以看书、读报。但就是不认识人啦。













因此,我们成立了“蔬食益生微信交流群”,方便大家互动互助,有兴趣的朋友请添加管理员的微信拉你进群:vegan_lin, 添加注明暗号“蔬食益生”。

 Michael Greger 医生畅销书《How Not To Die》简体中文版《救命》今年5月出版,点此了解预售详情。(友情链接,老玉米不参与书的销售)





Copyright © 广西奶制品价格联盟@2017